Whether you are building a water garden or a Koi pond the basic steps to construction are basically the same.
• Koi ponds require a low pressure pump and a bigger liner or basin
• A pond with a fountain requires a high pressure pump and any size liner or basin
• A water garden requires a basin or liner that has different levels
• A water garden that attracts frogs and dragon flies must have a shallow end that has just a few inches of water
Once you have decided on the type of pond you need to build your next step is to decide on a location. In general you should avoid placing your pond –
• Near a garden or lawn with pesticides
• On a slope with runoff
• Under a tree
The perimeter shape of your pool is not really of much consequence in any way and it is purely a matter of taste.
Popular perimeter shapes are the square, circle, octagon and kidney shaped pools. The more geometric the shape the more formal it will look. Kidney or irregularly shaped prefabricated molds look the most natural. Square and round shapes are associated with European (and especially Italian) designs. The octagon shapes are associated with Feng Shui and other Asian water gardening traditions.
If you are planning to build a water garden that boasts a glorious display of water lilies then you need to make sure you buy a prefabricated basin that has shelves. This is because water lilies are laid in the water inside pots that may need to be placed on graduated levels depending on how they grow.
When it comes to determining how deep your pool should be consider that ponds built in colder areas may need more depth to keep the pond from freezing solid during the winter. Koi ponds should be three feet or deeper to allow fish to spawn and if you plan on allowing the Koi to winter in the pond then plan on having a pond that is at least five feet in depth.
Pond Liners are the plastic shell that cradles the water in your pond. The easiest way to go is to buy pre-formed plastic liners from a garden center.
Installing prefabricated liners is easy. You simply dig a hole large enough for the liner to lie in and make sure it is level by filling it with amounts of sand. All you need to do is flip the prefabricated liner over and trace it somehow on the grass to know where you are going to dig.
Once you have installed your pond liner you will notice an unattractive gap between the plastic tub and the rough edges where you dug out the hole. Stones and other materials that are used to conceal the plastic edges of the liner or prefabricated tub are called copings. Coping stones can then be mortared into place to conceal this gap.
Root clumps mixed with gravel can also be used to edge the pond to give the appearance of a natural occurring spring in the forest.